What does the pronoun it refer to?


2.5 Прочитай, текст History of the Building Industry, расположи абзацы в правильной последовательности:

1. It was important to calculate accurately the cost of materials and labour, and there came to be so much competition for doing the work that a system of tendering developed. Different contractors would calculate what it would cost to complete a project and then the lowest estimate would be chosen. The quantity surveyor emerged in the late 19th century as a professional specialist in building finance, who could accurately predict the cost of a project.

2. The present state of building construction is complex. There is a wide range of building products and systems which are aimed primarily at groups of building types or markets. The design process for buildings is highly organized and draws upon research establishments that study material properties and performance, code officials who adopt and enforce safely standards, and design professionals who determine user needs and design a building to meet those needs. The construction process is also highly organized; it includes the manufacturers of building products and systems, the craftsmen who assemble them on the building site, the contractors who employ and coordinate the work of the craftsmen, and consultants who specialize in such aspects as construction management, quality control, and insurance.

3. At the time of the Renaissance in the 15th and 16th centuries a new sort of building specialist emerged. He was usually a philos­opher or artist, rather than a craftsman, who would get together a team of building workers and make arrangements to pay them. This was the beginning of the profession of architecture.

4. When the railways were built, tunnels were dug, and bridges, aqueducts, and roads were built. New materials such as steel were introduced and engineers were trained to use them. Advances in science meant that building designers could calculate in advance how a building should be constructed to ensure that it would stand up, instead of relying on a system of trial and error, for it sometimes happened that a building would collapse while it was being built.

5. After the end of the Roman Empire in the 4th century AD there was very little large-scale building done in Europe for about six hundred years. There were two kinds of buildings other than cottages and farm buildings: castles and churches. Building a cathedral was such a vast undertaking that someone was required to organize all the craftsmen needed for the work. This was usually a master stonemason.

6. In early times there were few specialist builders. People constructed their homes from whatever material was available where they lived. The only large buildings were communal ones such as granaries and places of worship for their gods. In ancient Egypt, Greece, and Rome, large buildings were financed by the rulers of the country and built by slaves who had been captured in battle. Stone was used if it was available and where it was not, brick- making industry developed.

7. The Industrial Revolution in the 19th century brought to an end the craft traditions in building. Many new functional buildings were put up in the big towns that were developing — buildings that were not planned to be beautiful but were there to house machinery and the workers who operated it. They had to be built quickly and cheaply. The building materials were brought across the country on the new canals and railways that were quickly constructed to get the raw materials for industry and the finished products to the places where they were needed.

8. In the late 19th century, all kinds of new technological developments affected the building industry. The emergence of the skyscraper in Chicago, United States, was made possible not only by the use of steel framing in the structure, but also by the invention of the elevator, the telephone, and air conditioning.

2.6 Закончи предложения, используя текст выше:

1. In early times people constructed their homes from

A. stone available.

B. any material available.

C. bricks.

2. At the time of the Renaissance in the 15th and 16th centuries a new sort of building specialist was

A. a master stonemason.

B. a craftsman.

C. an artist.

3. In the 19th century advances in science meant that

A. a system of trial and error was relied on.

B. design calculations were introduced.

C. new materials began to be used.

4. The construction of the skyscraper was made possible by

A. the use of steel framing, the invention of the elevator, the telephone, and air conditioning.

B. the use of steel framing.

C. the invention of the elevator and air conditioning.

5. Now the construction process is highly organized because

A. it includes the manufacturers of building products.

B. it involves design professionals.

C. it involves different sorts of building experts.

2.7 Прочитай, текст Construction Projects, зполни пропуски:

performance and reduce construction waste; inconvenience to the public caused by construction delays; As efficiency codes have come into effect in recent years; The vast majority of building construction projects are small renovations; careful planning is needed again here; such as structural collapse, cost overruns, and/or litigation reason; The cost of construction on a per square metre basis for houses can vary dramatically based on site conditions; large scale construction is a feat of multitasking; this type of construction requires a team of individuals to ensure a successful project; supervised by the construction manager; Owners of these projects are usually large; For the successful execution of a project.

In the fields of architecture and civil engineering, construction is a process that consists of the building or assembling of infrastructure. Far from being a single activity, _. Normally the job is managed by the project manager and _, design engineer, construction engineer or project architect.

_, effective planning is essential. Those involved with the design and execution of the infrastructure in question must consider the environmental impact of the job, the successful scheduling, budgeting, site safety, availability of materials, logistics, _, preparing tender documents, etc. In general, there are two types of construction: building construction and industrial construction. Each type of construction project requires a unique team to plan, design, construct, and maintain the project.

Building construction is the process of adding structure to real property. _, such as addition of a room, or renovation of a bathroom. The owner of the property often acts as labourer, paymaster, and design team for the entireproject. However, all building construction projects include some elements in common — design, financial, and legal considerations. Many projects of varying sizes reach undesirable end results, _. Those with experience in the field make detailed plans and maintain careful oversight during the project to ensure a positive outcome.

Residential construction technologies and resources must conform to local building authority regulations and codes of practice. Materials readily available in the area generally dictate the construction materials used (e.g. brick versus stone or timber). _, local regulations, economies of scale (custom designed homes are always more expensive to build) and the availability of skilled workers. Residential and all other types of construction can generate a lot of waste, _.

The popular method of residential construction in the United States is wood framed construction. _, new construction technologies and methods have emerged. University Construction Management departments are on the cutting edge of the newest methods of construction intended to improve efficiency, _.

Industrial construction, though a relatively small part of the entire construction industry, is a very important component. _, for-profit, industrial corporations. These corporations can be found in such industries as medicine, petroleum, chemical, manufacturing, etc. Processes in these industries require highly specialized expertise in planning, design, and construction. As in building and heavy/highway construction, _.

2.8 Ответь на вопросы:

1. What does a construction process involve?

2. What is required for the successful execution of a construction project?

3. How many types of construction are there?

4. Who ensures positive end results of construction projects?

5. Why can the cost of construction vary?

6. What is the negative outcome of residential construction?

7. What are the new methods of construction characterized by?

8. Why is industrial construction a very important part of the construction industry?


Местоимения употребляются в предложении вместо имени существительного или имени прилагательного. Местоимения называют людей, предметы или призна­ки, уже упомянутые ранее.

Слова, обозначающие мужчин, заменяются место­имением he (он). Слова, обозначающие женщин, заменяются место­имением she (она). Слова, обозначающие неодушевленные предметы, заменяются местоимением it. Местоимение they (они) относится ко всем трем ро­дам. They are boys. They are engineers. They are apples.

ЛИЧНЫЕ МЕСТОИМЕНИЯ (Personal Pronouns)

Личные местоимения в английском имеют два па­дежа: Именительный падеж (the nominative case). I (я) you (ты) he (он) she (она) it (оно) we (мы) you (вы) they (они); Объектный падеж (the objective case), заменяю­щий собой все остальные падежи русского. me (мне, меня) you (тебе, тебя) him (ему, его) her (ей, ее) it (ему) неодуш. us (нам, нас) you (вам, вас) them (им, их)


Единственное число Множественное число

1 лицо my (мой, моя, мое, мои) our (наш, наша, наше, наши)

2 лицо your (твой, твоя, твое, твои) your (ваш, ваша, ваше, ваши)

3 лицо his (его), her (ее), its (его) their (их)

Притяжательные местоимения отвечают на вопрос чей? и имеют две формы: основную и абсолютную.

Основная форма употребляется в тех случаях, ког­да за притяжательным местоимением стоит существи­тельное. This is my book and that is your book. Это моя книга, а то твоя книга.

Абсолютная форма притяжательных местоимений употребляется в тех случаях, когда за местоимением не стоит существительное. This is my book and that is yours. Это моя книга, a то твоя. It is not mine. Она не моя.